is one of the most common conditions treated by podiatrists. It is often a message that something is in
need of medical attention. Pain that occurs right after an injury or early in an illness may play a protective role, often warning us about the damage we have suffered. Heel pain is a problem which
affects people of all ages and vocations, whether they are active or not and it comes in many different forms. Heel pain can also occur in children usually between the ages of 8 and 13, as they
become increasingly active in sporting activities and during the growing phase.
Plantar fasciitis: It is the most common cause of heel pain. In this condition, the pain is more severe in the morning but becomes less painful as the day continues. It occurs due to tiny tears in
the plantar fascia.The plantar faschia is a tissue band that connects the bottom of the heel bones to the ball of the foot and is involved in walking and running, giving spring to the step. If left
untreated, the symptoms usually worsen and can lead to problems with the knee and hip and can cause back pain due to difficulty walking. Those who frequently stand or walk throughout the day or those
who run are most likely to develop plantar fasciitis.
Sever?s Disease. This is a condition that occurs in 10 - 15 year old children, predominantly boys and is associated with running and repetitive jumping. It is also associated with flimsy footwear
that kids may wear. It occurs when the Achilles tendon continually pulls on the apophysis of the calcaneum and does not allow for it to fuse with the body of the calcaneum. Calcaneal enthesopathy.
This occurs when there is repetitive trauma at the attachment of the Achilles tendon, resulting in a spur from the calcaneum up into the Achilles tendon. It is usually visualized on x-ray and may be
tender if there is an associated bursitis or tendonitis. "Pump Bump". Also known as Haglund?s Deformity, this is a bony enlargement that exists on the back of the heel - usually related to a
congenital abnormality or with chronic bursitis, causing a thickening. There may have already been trauma or pressure from footwear. Treatment is usually protection of the bump and correct footwear.
Associated with a symmetrical swelling at the base of the Achilles tendon. It is usually related to repetitive trauma or inappropriate footwear. It is often red and hot in the early stages. Treatment
is usually to correct the footwear, provide padding and treat the local symptoms e.g. ice, rest, physiotherapy and cortisone injection. Fat Pad Syndrome. Direct contact with the base of the heel may
result in trauma to the fat pad. Related to obesity, training on hard surfaces, uneven grounds, poor shoes especially overlarge shoes which can cause shearing forces on the heel. These conditions are
renowned for taking a long time to recover - usually many months.
A biomechanical exam by your podiatrist will help reveal these abnormalities and in turn resolve the cause of plantar fasciitis. By addressing this cause, the patient can be offered a podiatric
long-term solution to his problem.
Non Surgical Treatment
When consulting a doctor about heel pain, a patient can expect to be questioned about their level of pain, how long they?ve been experiencing it, and which activities aggravate or alleviate the
condition. The doctor may order x-rays, a physical therapy regimen, or refer the afflicted individual to an orthopedic specialist for further examination. The doctor may attempt to recreate
conditions that cause the heel pain to flare up in order to study reaction and cause in the patient, but this will be temporary and the doctor will stop this test at the request of the patient. A
patient with heel pain may also be fitted with special inserts for their shoes to help correct arch and heel problems that cause pain. Heel problems can range from the mildly irritating to the nearly
devastating, but proper prevention in care will help keep each step pain free. Advanced orthopedics, pain management, and technologically-honed surgical techniques ensure that no patient needs to
suffer with the discomfort of heel pain and the restrictions it imposes on an active lifestyle.
If treatment hasn't worked and you still have painful symptoms after a year, your GP may refer you to either an orthopaedic surgeon, a surgeon who specialises in surgery that involves bones, muscles
and joints or a podiatric surgeon, a podiatrist who specialises in foot surgery. Surgery is sometimes recommended for professional athletes and other sportspeople whose heel pain is adversely
affecting their career. Plantar release surgery is the most widely used type of surgery for heel pain. The surgeon will cut the fascia to release it from your heel bone and reduce the tension in your
plantar fascia. This should reduce any inflammation and relieve your painful symptoms. Surgery can be performed either as open surgery, where the section of the plantar fascia is released by making a
cut into your heel or endoscopic or minimal incision surgery - where a smaller incision is made and special instruments are inserted through the incision to gain access to the plantar fascia.
Endoscopic or minimal incision surgery has a quicker recovery time, so you will be able to walk normally much sooner (almost immediately), compared with two to three weeks for open surgery. A
disadvantage of endoscopic surgery is that it requires both a specially trained surgical team and specialised equipment, so you may have to wait longer for treatment than if you were to choose open
surgery. Endoscopic surgery also carries a higher risk of damaging nearby nerves, which could result in symptoms such as numbness, tingling or some loss of movement in your foot. As with all surgery,
plantar release carries the risk of causing complications such as infection, nerve damage and a worsening of your symptoms after surgery (although this is rare). You should discuss the advantages and
disadvantages of both techniques with your surgical team.
Maintaining flexible and strong muscles in your calves, ankles, and feet can help prevent some types of heel pain. Always stretch and warm-up before exercising. Wear comfortable, properly fitting
shoes with good arch support and cushioning. Make sure there is enough room for your toes.